- Learn which resources you'll need to release your app.
- Find out how to configure and build your app for release.
- Learn best practices for releasing your app.
In this document
- Gathering Materials and Resources
- Configuring Your Application
- Building Your Application
- Preparing External Servers and Resources
- Testing Your Application for Release
Before you distribute your Android application to users you need to prepare it for release. The preparation process is a required development task for all Android applications and is the first step in the publishing process (see figure 1).
When you prepare your application for release, you configure, build, and test a release
version of your application. The configuration tasks are straightforward, involving basic code
cleanup and code modification tasks that help optimize your application. The build process is
similar to the debug build process and can be done using JDK and Android SDK tools. The testing
tasks serve as a final check, ensuring that your application performs as expected under real-world
conditions. When you are finished preparing your application for release you have a signed
.apk file, which you can distribute directly to users or distribute through an
application marketplace such as Google Play.
This document summarizes the main tasks you need to perform to prepare your application for release. The tasks that are described in this document apply to all Android applications regardless how they are released or distributed to users. If you are releasing your application through Google Play, you should also read Publishing Checklist for Google Play to be sure your release-ready application satisfies all Google Play requirements.
Note: As a best practice, your application should meet all of your release criteria for functionality, performance, and stability before you perform the tasks outlined in this document.
To release your application to users you need to create a release-ready package that users can
install and run on their Android-powered devices. The release-ready package contains the same
components as the debug
.apk file — compiled source code, resources, manifest
file, and so on — and it is built using the same build tools. However, unlike the debug
.apk file, the release-ready
.apk file is signed with your own certificate
and it is optimized with the zipalign tool.
The signing and optimization tasks are usually seamless if you are building your application with Android Studio. For example, you can use Android Studio with the Gradle build files to compile, sign, and optimize your application all at once. You can also configure the Gradle build files to do the same when you build from the command line. For more details about using the Gradle build files, see the Build System guide.
To prepare your application for release you typically perform five main tasks (see figure 2). Each main task may include one or more smaller tasks depending on how you are releasing your application. For example, if you are releasing your application through Google Play you may want to add special filtering rules to your manifest while you are configuring your application for release. Similarly, to meet Google Play publishing guidelines you may have to prepare screenshots and create promotional text while you are gathering materials for release.
You usually perform the tasks listed in figure 2 after you have throroughly debugged and tested your application. The Android SDK contains several tools to help you test and debug your Android applications. For more information, see the Debugging and Testing sections in the Dev Guide.
Gathering Materials and Resources
To begin preparing your application for release you need to gather several supporting items. At a minimum this includes cryptographic keys for signing your application and an application icon. You might also want to include an end-user license agreement.
The Android system requires that each installed application be digitally signed with a certificate that is owned by the application's developer (that is, a certificate for which the developer holds the private key). The Android system uses the certificate as a means of identifying the author of an application and establishing trust relationships between applications. The certificate that you use for signing does not need to be signed by a certificate authority; the Android system allows you to sign your applications with a self-signed certificate. To learn about certificate requirements, see Signing Your Applications.
Important: Your application must be signed with a cryptographic key whose validity period ends after 22 October 2033.
You may also have to obtain other release keys if your application accesses a service or uses a third-party library that requires you to use a key that is based on your private key. For example, if your application uses the MapView class, which is part of the Google Maps external library, you will need to register your application with the Google Maps service and obtain a Maps API key. For information about getting a Maps API key, see Obtaining a Maps API key.
Be sure you have an application icon and that it meets the recommended icon guidelines. Your application's icon helps users identify your application on a device's Home screen and in the Launcher window. It also appears in Manage Applications, My Downloads, and elsewhere. In addition, publishing services such as Google Play display your icon to users.
Note: If you are releasing your application on Google Play, you need to create a high resolution version of your icon. See Graphic Assets for your Application for more information.
End-user License Agreement
Consider preparing an End User License Agreement (EULA) for your application. A EULA can help protect your person, organization, and intellectual property, and we recommend that you provide one with your application.
You might also have to prepare promotional and marketing materials to publicize your application. For example, if you are releasing your application on Google Play you will need to prepare some promotional text and you will need to create screenshots of your application. For more information, see Graphic Assets for your Application
Configuring Your Application for Release
After you gather all of your supporting materials you can start configuring your application for release. This section provides a summary of the configuration changes we recommend that you make to your source code, resource files, and application manifest prior to releasing your application. Although most of the configuration changes listed in this section are optional, they are considered good coding practices and we encourage you to implement them. In some cases, you may have already made these configuration changes as part of your development process.
Choose a good package name
Make sure you choose a package name that is suitable over the life of your application. You cannot change the package name after you distribute your application to users. You can set the package name in application's manifest file. For more information, see the package attribute documentation.
Turn off logging and debugging
Make sure you deactivate logging and disable the debugging option before you build your
application for release. You can deactivate logging by removing calls to
Log methods in your source files. You can disable debugging by removing the
android:debuggable attribute from the
<application> tag in your
manifest file, or by setting the
android:debuggable attribute to
false in your manifest file. Also, remove any log files or static test files that
were created in your project.
Important: Ensure that you disable debugging for
your app if using
interfaces, since debugging allows users to inject scripts and extract content using Chrome
DevTools. To disable debugging, use the
Clean up your project directories
Clean up your project and make sure it conforms to the directory structure described in Android Projects. Leaving stray or orphaned files in your project can prevent your application from compiling and cause your application to behave unpredictably. At a minimum you should do the following cleanup tasks:
- Review the contents of your
jni/directory should contain only source files associated with the Android NDK, such as
lib/directory should contain only third-party library files or private library files, including prebuilt shared and static libraries (for example,
src/directory should contain only the source files for your application (
src/directory should not contain any
- Check your project for private or proprietary data files that your application does not use
and remove them. For example, look in your project's
res/directory for old drawable files, layout files, and values files that you are no longer using and delete them.
- Check your
lib/directory for test libraries and remove them if they are no longer being used by your application.
- Review the contents of your
assets/directory and your
res/raw/directory for raw asset files and static files that you need to update or remove prior to release.
Review and update your manifest and Gradle build settings
Verify that the following manifest and build files items are set correctly: